References: journal articles, books, internet web links, and personal communication with physicians, speech therapists, VCD patients, and others. (Also, see "links" webpage.)

Let me know if any links are not working now. See email below.

Please use caution, and consult with your physician before trying any of the therapies suggested in any of the following references:

1. National Jewish Med Facts (print-version): Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Denver, CO: National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1995. 3p. This "brief and to the point" excellent introduction to VCD was the first written materials my husband and I ever read about VCD. We were given this, when we were diagnosed with VCD, at National Jewish Hospital. Located in the Library (See Ref.2): Med Facts File. Read this by clicking on the following link, http://nationaljewish.org/healthinfo/conditions/vcd/index.aspx

   For National Jewish Medical & Research Center's home page of their website, see http://www.NationalJewish.org
   Also, see webpage 7, here in this website, at http://cantbreathesuspectvcd.com/page7.html
   Also, please see link "R" on "links" webpage. 

2. Gerald Tucker Memorial Medical Library, at National Jewish Medical and Research Center; web site is http://Library.NationalJewish.org   Be sure to check out their pathfinders data base. This is an excellent medical library, with very helpful librarians.

3. Patterson, David L., MD, and O'Connell, Edward J., MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction: What Have We Learned in 150 Years? Insights in Allergy. 1994; Vol.9, No.6:1-3,7-12. Library

4. Paine, Robert, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction as an Asthma Mimic. Lesson 6, Vol.13. Last updated 11/30/2000. http://www.chestnet.org/education/online/pccu/vol13/lesson06.php

5. Wood II, Raymond P., MD, and Milgrom, Henry, MD (Denver, CO). Review article; Vocal cord dysfunction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Sept. 1996; Vol.98, No.3:481-5 Library

6. O'Hollaren, Mark T., MD. Review article: Masqueraders in clinical allergy: laryngeal dysfunction causing dyspnea. [published erratum appears in Annals of Allergy 1991 Jan;66(1):22] Annals of Allergy. Nov. 1990; Vol.65, No.5:351-6. Library

7. Rolla G., MD, Collagrande P., MD, Magnano M., MD, Debernardi V., MD, Dutto L. Delpiano L. Cassolino P. Bucca C. (Torino, Italy). Extrathoracic airway dysfunction in cough associated with gastoesophageal reflux. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Aug. 1998; 102(2):204-9. Library

8. Wood II, Raymond P., MD. Jafek, Bruce W., MD. Cherniak, Reuben M, MD. (Denver, CO). Laryngeal dysfunction and pulmonary disorder. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. March, 1986;94(3):374-378. Library

9. Perkner, John J., DO, Fenelly, Kevin P., MD, Balkissoon, Ron, MD, Bartelson, Becki Bucher, PhD, Ruttenber, A. James, PhD, MD, Wood II, Raymond P., MD, Newman, Lee S., MD. Irritant-Associated Vocal Cord Dysfunction. J Occup Environ Med. Feb., 1998;40(2):136-143. Library. Also, see LINKS webpage (see "links" at bottom of this webpage.)

10. Brugman, Susan M., MD and Newman, Kenneth, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction. A publication of the Office of Professional Education, National Jewish Medical and Research Center. May, 1993;11(5):1-6. http://Library.NationalJewish.org/MSU/11n5MSU_VCD.html 

11. Shreve, Michael, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Last updated 12/10/1997. 5 p. U of MN:Peds PCCM home page. This article alerts medical students to the existence of VCD, and is brief, to the point, and helpful! It emphasizes that medical students WILL see VCD in some patients, sooner or later. Also see LINKS webpage.

12. O'Hollaren, Mark T., MD. 'Refractory asthma' may not be asthma at all. When dyspnea comes from the larynx. J Respir Dis, Sept., 1991;12(9):845-860. Library

13. National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association (NSDA). 800-795-NSDA, fax:312-803-0138, E-mail: NSDA@dysphonia.org Like Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD), almost no-one has heard of Spasmodic Dysphonia. It is a voice disorder involving the vocal cords, sometimes causing breathing problems. Web site is www.dysphonia.org/nsda/  They (NSDA) mailed info about SD to me that included helpful ideas on how to organize a support group (for VCD )

14. Ivker, Robert S., DO. Sinus Survival (The Holistic Medical Treatment for Allergies, Colds, and Sinusitis), 4th ed., revised & updated. N.Y. Tarcher/Putnam, 2000. 380 p. book. Wonderful book that is amazingly helpful for Sinus and other related problems, like Vocal Cord Dysfunction, Asthma, Bronchitis, Allergies, Candida yeast infections, etc. Includes easy directions for doing "user friendly" NASAL IRRIGATIONS (without rubber bulb syringes!), promotes use of HOT WATER VAPORIZER (to humidify air), and describes choices of AIR CLEANING DEVICES, & other very helpful information.

15. Murray, Michael T., ND. Stomach Ailments and Digestive Disturbances (How You Can Benefit from DIET, VITAMINS, MINERALS, HERBS, EXERCISE and Other Natural Methods). Rocklin, CA. Prima, 1997. Pages 18,19,29,30,40-43 in his book, discuss use of DGL (De-Glycyrrhizinated Licorice) that helps some to treat gastric (acid or alkaline) reflux (GER), &/or gastritis, &/or "ulcers". Note: DGL does not cause rise of blood pressure, and does not cause water/fluid retention (edema), as "whole licorice" can.
   Very helpful book for some people having digestive, &/or breathing, &/or voice problems, in my opinion. 200 pages. Also, see "links" webpage for more info about GERD, including newly recognized differences between "heartburn" type GERD, and 'voice box/throat area' type GERD. (One can have either type or both at the same time.) GERD=Gastro-Esophageal-Reflux Disease. The newly recognized type is called LPR (Laryngeal-Pharyngeal Reflux). Dr. Murray's book has helped some individuals having either type of GERD, in my experience.(I believe several books by Michael T. Murray include info on DGL, and other interesting ideas.) Note: Larynx=Voice Box (contains the vocal cords),  and Pharynx=Throat (above/higher up than the voice box).

16. National Vaccination Information Center (NVIC). 800-909-SHOT, 703-938-0342, and www.NVIC.org . This group, started by Barbara Loe Fisher, mother of a vaccine injured child, provides educational material to assist concerned parents and individuals to make informed vaccination decisions, in order to prevent vaccine injuries and deaths. They are non-profit, controversial, and thought provoking. (Vaccinations are a mixture of medications & chemicals, and can have adverse/bad side effects.) NVIC and others are for choice, and they feel that there should not be any "forced" vaccinations.

Here are several additional websites that explain why some parents decide to avoid vaccinations, for themselves &/or for their children. See these links: 





The controversial, important film "VAXXED: FROM COVER-UP TO CATASTROPHE"  is being shown in various states, 
and you can find out when and where this important film is NOW being shown, or will be shown, 

by looking at this link: http://www.vaxxedthemovie.com

Also: Ben Vaxxed, at ben@vaxxedthemovie.com, says: The full list of confirmed Vaxxed screenings is always available here:


VAXXED tells the truth about the fraud and then cover-up by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control), showing how 
the CDC changed and deleted data that would have shown a connection between AUTISM and the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccination!

Robert De Niro (actor & member of Tribeca Film Festival) urges everyone to see the film VAXXED 
(His son is autistic, from bad side effects of a vaccine, according to parents.). 

See this link, about the film, "VAXXED": From Cover-up to Catastrophe:

http://www.vaxxedthemovie.com  and 

See https://youtu.be/EdCU2DfMBpU  for  the "trailer" (coming attraction) of the film 
"VAXXED: From Cover-up to Catastrophe"


Also, see www.NVIC.org .

In addition, regarding the Zika virus:

Forced Vaccines in pregnant women, and toxic pesticide exposure, not Zika virus, 

may cause microcephaly in newborns.


Please read these following 3 important links, regarding the Zika virus, indicating that the Zika virus 

may NOT be the cause of microcephaly in newborns!


Neurologically toxic [poisonous] ingredients in both vaccines and in certain pesticides (larvacides for example), 

might be implicated, when studied further, as being etiologies [causes] of the tragic microcephaly in babies.









https://vactruth.com/2016/06/25/acetaminophen-and-autism/  tells how parents should avoid giving
vaccinated children any acetaminophen (Tylenol, etc.), because this medication promotes the
development of autism. Read the article for details.

17. Personal communication with MD's, Nurses, Speech Therapists, Researchers, Vocal Cord Dysfunction patients, and others, during the years 2001, 2002, & 2003. For more info, please e-mail me. See email, at bottom of this page.

18. Batmanghelidj, F., MD. Your Body's Many Cries For Water. Global Health Solutions, Inc., Falls Church, VA, 1997. 186 p. book. Discusses harmful results of both chronic dehydration and of not eating enough salt. But, don't overdo on drinking water & don't overdo on eating salt. Eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure. Controversial and thought provoking book.

19. Graedon, Joe, & Graedon, Teresa, PhD. DEADLY DRUG INTERACTIONS, The People's Pharmacy Guide. St. Martin's Griffin, New York. May, 1997. 447 p. book. Contains useful advice (check with your physician and pharmacist first!) about preventing this dangerous problem, recognizing and reporting symptoms, and realizing that more needs to be learned. One example is how "naringenin" (one of several bioflavenoids) in grapefruit juice, appears to block the action of a crucial liver enzyme, resulting in less "breakdown" of some drugs, thereby causing a toxic increase (potentially fatal) in blood levels of certain drugs (like some anti-histamines, & many other medications.) Look for latest edition of this book.

20. Bower, John. THE HEALTHY HOUSE: How to Buy One, How to Cure a "Sick" One, How to Build One.  Published by The Healthy House Institute, Bloomington, Indiana, 4th edition, revised, 2001. 445 p. book. Excellent and important book that alerts readers to the serious health hazards of "sick" homes and workplaces, including how "indoor air pollution" can even result in CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY. Describes how Environmental and Occupational Medicine/Health Sciences is far ahead of the United States Federal Government, in recognizing and dealing with "sick" buildings. 
   The book documents the reality of SBS/Sick Building Syndrome (where exact causes of people's illnesses have not yet been discovered), and BRI/Building Related Illness (where exact causes of people's illnesses have been discovered). 
   Both SBS and BRI are the results of "Indoor Air Pollution". The book compares EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) (regulates outdoor air quality) to OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)(regulates air quality in the workplace). One example of many indoor health hazards: formaldehyde [embalming fluid] outgassing from new carpets, plywood, particle board, insulation, paints, etc., causing "tightness in chest", "headaches", "asthmatic attacks", "depression", chemical sensitivity, and worse.(p. 29 of THE HEALTHY HOUSE book). This book also has solutions (suggestions), that help (injured) patients to get healthy again!

21. ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF VOCAL CORD DYSFUNCTION: A STATE-OF-THE-ART CONFERENCE, was July 20 & 21, 2001, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado. Information (including Ref.22 below) learned at this conference was added to this website. Also, see webpage 8, for information about the second VCD Conference, July 18 & 19, 2003, which was for medical professionals and those in allied health professions. Information from the 2003 conference is being added to this website.

22. Murray Morrison, MD,  Linda Rummage, and A. J. Emami. The Irritable Larynx Syndrome[ILS]. Journal of Voice, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.447-455, 1999. Library. (Note: Larynx=Voice Box.) These observant Canadian researchers/clinicians propose a hypothesis (theory) that includes a "mechanism whereby acquired plastic change to central brainstem nuclei may lead to this form of hyperkinetic laryngeal dysfunction" (e.g. VCD). Includes technical, and also non-technical information. They propose a "unifying neuro-pathological hypothesis" regarding ILS. 
   Also, see page 4, 5, and "links" page, about Muscle Tension Dysphonia (MTD), Spasmodic Dysphonia (SD), laryngospasm/VCD, and their inter-connections, including [manual] "manipulation techniques to reduce laryngeal tension and reduce symptoms". Some Speech Pathologists know these manipulation techniques, and have had good results with VCD. (Ask about CAUTIONS & WARNINGS of "contra-indications" of the manual manipulation techniques). 
   At the July, 2003 VCD Conference held by Nat'l Jewish (see webpage 8), Dr. Morrison told conference attendees about his available video tape, that shows these techniques. 
   Dr. Marshall Smith, MD, was the first to suggest that I read this important article. Dr. Smith is at the Voice Disorders Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

23. Paavo Airola, N.D., Ph.D. How to Get Well. HEALTH PLUS, Publishers, Sherwood, Oregon. 1974. 303 p. book. Dr. Airola, a Nature Doctor, believed in avoiding de-natured foods (white bread, etc.), and he exposed some hazards of drinking distilled water (soft water), like osterporosis. Has a holistic outlook ("biological medicine"). He liked "supplements", herbs, & has useful nutrient-rich food tables, for those who prefer to use foods, instead of, or in addition to supplements. A "Handbook of Natural Healing". Discusses many ailments. Has medical references. Very helpful, but, lacks info about gluten sensitivity, casein sensitivity, etc. (See webpages 5 & 10, about food sensitivities).

24. Jethro Kloss. Back to Eden. BACK TO EDEN BOOKS PUBLISHING CO., Loma Linda, California. 1939. 886 p. book. "The classic guide to herbal medicine, natural foods, and home remedies". Dedicated to using "Nature's healing resources" to help people restore health. Tells of dangers of aluminum poisoning from aluminum cookware. Includes many ailments including holistic treatments for rabies, tetanus, & smallpox--useful if one is far away from doctors or hospitals. Helpful book, but also doesn't know about food sensitivities. See webpages 5 & 10 about food sensitivities.

25. James F. Balch, MD,  Phyllis A. Balch, CNC. Prescription for NUTRITIONAL HEALING. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York. 1997 (2nd edition). [Get the latest edition]. 600 p. book. Very comprehensive holistic, and allopathic, when needed--i.e. "complementary" medical ideas about a myriad of conditions (including Candida yeast infections.) Many resources & references. Includes hazards of mercury-silver amalgam dental fillings. This helpful book does mention gluten sensitivity, but, as most doctors are, was unaware of the common-ness of gluten sensitivity, both Celiac Disease, and non-Celiac types of gluten sensitivity. See webpage 10 about food sensitivities.

26. Jamie A. Koufman, MD. THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PARADOXICAL VOCAL CORD MOVEMENT. Reprinted from THE VISIBLE VOICE Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 1994). Excellent article that explains several other unsuspected causes of VCD and conditions associated with VCD, like: Spasmodic Dysphonia, Meige's Syndrome, also, a subset of patients with "a respiratory type of adductor laryngeal dystonia...", side effects of some "neuroleptic" drugs, the anesthetic Thiopental, several brainstem abnormalities (congenital or acquired), Gastro-Esophageal Reflux, etc. Dr. Koufman writes, "Contrary to popular belief, relatively few cases [of VCD/paroxysmal laryngospasm] are "functional", i.e. psychogenic." (See webpages 4 & 5). Dr. Koufman (Ear, Nose, & Throat doctor) was at the Center for Voice Disorders of Wake Forest University, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and is now in New York City. (Also, see links "E" & "Q", on "links" webpage.)  To read this article, click on the following link:

27. Clayton L. Thomas, MD, MPH, editor. TABER'S CYCLOPEDIC MEDICAL DICTIONARY. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1993 (17th edition). 2,598 pages. Look at latest edition. Helps define some confusing terms. As with medical books, information changes from year to year. Inspires readers to learn more, from good anatomy books, etc. Helpful, but lacks info about VCD!

28. Tom Harris, MA, FRCS, Sara Harris, MRCSLT, John S. Rubin, M.D., FACS,
David M. Howard, BSc, PhD, with Jacob Lieberman, D.O., M.A., Diah Harris, and Phiroze Neemuchwala. THE VOICE CLINIC HANDBOOK. Whurr Publishers Ltd., London, England. 1998. Dr. Murray Morrison, M.D., experienced Voice doctor from Canada recommended this book. 
   Chapter 6 is called "Principles and techniques of manual therapy: applications in the management of dysphonia", and was written by Dr. Jacob Lieberman, D.O. (Osteopathic physician). MANUAL THERAPY involves "laryngeal palpation and manipulation", to help decrease NECK MUSCLE TENSION, and must be learned by "careful training and supervision from an expert". 
   So, both Speech Pathologists and patients having VCD, Spasmodic Dysphonia (SD), Muscle Tension Dysphonia (MTD), etc. would need to search for the "relatively few osteopaths or physiotherapists who have applied their manipulative skills to the larynx [voice box]". 
   Chapter 6 describes many details of the MANUAL THERAPY, including photos and drawings, and includes "contra-indications". 
   This book also recognizes the value of Alexander Technique, Feldenkrais (Awareness Through Movement), and Pilates (a special exercise form) for helping patients with VCD, SD, MTD, etc.
   Also, Conferences teaching MANUAL THERAPY methods, are offered at various times, by Nelson Roy, PhD, from Utah. And, Dr. Murray Morrison, MD, from Vancouver, BC, Canada, has his videotape of these methods, performed by him, available to medical professionals.

29. Milan R. Amin, M.D. and Jamie A. Koufman, M.D., Vagal Neuropathy After Upper Respiratory Infection: A Viral Etiology? American Journal of Otolaryngology, Vol 22, No 4 (July-August), 2001: pp 251-256. This important article describes how a viral upper respiratory infection (URI) can cause damage to "various branches of the vagus nerve", resulting in voice problems such as "breathy dysphonia, vocal fatigue, effortful phonation, odynophonia" [pain when talking], and "cough, globus [feeling of lump in throat], and/or dysphagia [difficulty swallowing], lasting long after resolution of the acute viral illness". 
   The authors conclude that "this so-called POST VIRAL VAGAL NEUROPATHY (PVVN)",
caused by a viral URI [upper respiratory infection], can manifest (show itself) as "vocal fold paresis (weakness/partial paralysis of 1 or both vocal cords), laryngopharyngeal reflux [LPR/laryngeal-pharyngeal reflux], and neuropathic pain."

Post [after], 
Viral [virus infection], 
vagal [vagus nerve, &/or branches off vagus nerve, including laryngeal nerves &/or stomach controlling nerves, etc.],
europathy [nerve damage from infection, &/or from physical damage such as surgery accidentally cutting, nicking, stretching, compressing a nerve].

With PVVN, the neuropathy is due to virus infection, where the viruses moved (migrated) from one location, over to some nerve(s).

   This is relevant for many VCD patients who developed VCD during or after a viral respiratory illness. The viral illness may have resulted in a  new condition for some of them, such as the LPR form of GER (Gastro-Esophageal Reflux)--which can CAUSE VCD, &/or a vocal cord "paresis", which can predispose one to getting VCD! 
   Dr. Amin is an ENT (Ear, nose & throat doctor) formerly from Philadelphia, PA, and is now in New York City, and Dr. Koufman is an ENT previously from Winston-Salem, NC, and is now in New York City. Reprints of this article are available by contacting Dr. Koufman's office. (See link in Ref.26, above). 
   A patient who recovered from vocal cord paresis (spontaneously, using greatly improved diet & nutrition) told me about this article.

When laryngeal nerves are damaged, as one type of a PVVN, some other laryngologists call the laryngeal type (sub-set) of PVVN, a ''laryngeal sensory neuropathy''.

30. BUTEYKO ASTHMA EDUCATION, USA  is an interesting and helpful website, made by Susan Neves, with useful information about the breathing methods discovered by Russian PhD, Dr. Buteyko. 
  Professor Buteyko helped large numbers of asthma patients to be able to decrease their asthma medications (only under close, qualified, medical supervision). 
   Some Buteyko teachers will hold classes in other states, if contacted by several people from an area. 
   Although the Buteyko breathing methods are widely used in Russia, Australia, New Zealand, and England, they haven't become well known, yet, in the U.S. 
   Buteyko Practitioners include Respiratory Therapists, Nurses, Speech & Language Pathologists, and others. See these links: 

Many of these links are not working (May, 2016), but the link (directly below), featuring Patrick McKeown, is a working link: 

http://www.buteykoclinic.com/buteyko-patrick-mckeown.php is a link to "Buteyko Clinic International Self Help DVD Programs & Online Courses". Seems good. Please let me know what you think, if you try any of the videos made by Patrick McKeown, an expert at teaching Buteyko breathing methods. Patrick, himself, has asthma, and Buteyko helped him a lot!

http://www.buteyko-usa.com and
http://www.buteyko.info/index.asp (home page)
   So far (as of 6/07), I believe that only one hospital in the U.S. uses Buteyko, to help asthma patients who desire non-drug help: Fairview Hospital, in western Massachusetts (MA), is a small but progressive hospital. See this link: (sorry for very small print) http://www.berkshirehealthsystems.com/health_services_level2.asp?ID=232
   The senior respiratory therapist at Fairview Hospital who teaches Buteyko, Tom Fleming, can be reached at breathebetter92@hotmail.com, or, at tfleming@bhs1.org 
The following links list Buteyko practitioners (teachers) in the U.S. and elsewhere. See these links:


http://www.buteyko.info/fap_buteyko_region.asp?grpcode=USAandCanada(Buteyko teachers in the USA & Canada), and
http://www.buteyko.info/find_a_buteyko_practitioner.asp (Buteyko teachers around the world)

http://www.breatheon.com is a website about Buteyko being taught in Boston, MA, by a speech pathologist.

31. Bhargava, S., Panitch, H.B., Allen, J.L., Chlorine Induced Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Chest 2000; 118 (4), supplement 295S-296-S. This article (which I haven't read yet) was reference 20, in Vocal Cord Dysfunction: Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion-A Thorough Review, July 18, 2001, Grand Rounds Presentation--a very interesting article, written at the Univeristy of Texas, but which has several inaccuracies in it, along with much good information about VCD.


32. Burton Goldberg and the Editors of Alternative Medicine Digest. Alternative Medicine Guide: Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia & Environmental Illness. Future Medicine Publishing, Tiburon, California, 1998. This fascinating book includes many alternative (holistic) methods that have helped some patients. Some topics included are: testing for underlying causes; treating viruses, infections, Candida (yeast), parasites; detoxification methods; thyroid problems; mercury tooth fillings' toxicity and other heavy metal toxicities; digestion problems & need for digestive enzymes; allergies; nutrition needs; psychological & emotional factors; use of acupuncture; sick building syndrome & building related illness; use of herbs, etc. 
   There's much food for thought, and practical ideas, in this book. Read with a critical eye, and listen to your inner voice, for any (red flags) warnings! Remember that there are both honest, good practitioners, and there are also "quacks". This is true in all branches of medicine--holistic and allopathic.

33. PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal bacterial infection), or a similar condition caused by viruses, mycobacteria, etc., can sometimes result in getting VCD, in the following ways:

Eating ice compulsively (pagophagia) can cause gastric reflux leading to VCD. One specific  OCD/Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (called pagophagia) may in some cases be caused by PANDAS, or in some other cases, the pagophagia can just be caused by an iron deficiency. See webpage 5 for links about pagophagia, etc. See http://cantbreathesuspectvcd.com/page5.html

Bulimia (self induced vomiting due to an OCD) may in some cases be caused by PANDAS, and the vomiting can act like gastric reflux, causing VCD attacks. See webpage 5 for links about bulimia and about PANDAS.

"Tics" can sometimes be a VCD "mimic". Tics can sometimes be caused by PANDAS. See webpage 3, for links about PANDAS and tics. See http://cantbreathesuspectvcd.com/page3.html

Also see the question near the bottom of webpage 5, asking whether tic disorders (in some cases caused by PANDAS) can ever lead to getting VCD.

You are now at the bottom of web-page 9. Please read web-page 10, next. 

Please use caution, and consult with your physician before trying any of the therapies suggested in any of the above references.

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