CAN'T BREATHE? SUSPECT VOCAL CORD DYSFUNCTION!
References: journal articles, books, internet web links, and personal communication with physicians, speech therapists, VCD patients, and others. (Also, see "links" webpage.)
Let me know if any links are not working now. See email below.
|Please use caution, and consult with your
physician before trying any of the therapies suggested in any of the following
1. National Jewish Med Facts (print-version): Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Denver, CO: National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1995. 3p. This "brief and to the point" excellent introduction to VCD was the first written materials my husband and I ever read about VCD. We were given this, when we were diagnosed with VCD, at National Jewish Hospital. Located in the Library (See Ref.2): Med Facts File. Read this by clicking on the following link, http://nationaljewish.org/healthinfo/conditions/vcd/index.aspx
For National Jewish Medical & Research Center's home
page of their website, see http://www.NationalJewish.org
2. Gerald Tucker Memorial Medical Library, at National Jewish Medical and Research Center; web site is http://Library.NationalJewish.org Be sure to check out their pathfinders data base. This is an excellent medical library, with very helpful librarians.
3. Patterson, David L., MD, and O'Connell, Edward J., MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction: What Have We Learned in 150 Years? Insights in Allergy. 1994; Vol.9, No.6:1-3,7-12. Library
4. Paine, Robert, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction as an Asthma Mimic. Lesson 6, Vol.13. Last updated 11/30/2000. http://www.chestnet.org/education/online/pccu/vol13/lesson06.php
5. Wood II, Raymond P., MD, and Milgrom, Henry, MD (Denver, CO). Review article; Vocal cord dysfunction. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Sept. 1996; Vol.98, No.3:481-5 Library
6. O'Hollaren, Mark T., MD. Review article: Masqueraders in clinical allergy: laryngeal dysfunction causing dyspnea. [published erratum appears in Annals of Allergy 1991 Jan;66(1):22] Annals of Allergy. Nov. 1990; Vol.65, No.5:351-6. Library
7. Rolla G., MD, Collagrande P., MD, Magnano M., MD, Debernardi V., MD, Dutto L. Delpiano L. Cassolino P. Bucca C. (Torino, Italy). Extrathoracic airway dysfunction in cough associated with gastoesophageal reflux. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Aug. 1998; 102(2):204-9. Library
8. Wood II, Raymond P., MD. Jafek, Bruce W., MD. Cherniak, Reuben M, MD. (Denver, CO). Laryngeal dysfunction and pulmonary disorder. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. March, 1986;94(3):374-378. Library
9. Perkner, John J., DO, Fenelly, Kevin P., MD, Balkissoon, Ron, MD, Bartelson, Becki Bucher, PhD, Ruttenber, A. James, PhD, MD, Wood II, Raymond P., MD, Newman, Lee S., MD. Irritant-Associated Vocal Cord Dysfunction. J Occup Environ Med. Feb., 1998;40(2):136-143. Library. Also, see LINKS webpage (see "links" at bottom of this webpage.)
10. Brugman, Susan M., MD and Newman, Kenneth, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction. A publication of the Office of Professional Education, National Jewish Medical and Research Center. May, 1993;11(5):1-6. http://Library.NationalJewish.org/MSU/11n5MSU_VCD.html
11. Shreve, Michael, MD. Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Last
updated 12/10/1997. 5 p. U of MN:Peds PCCM home page. This article alerts
medical students to the existence of VCD, and is brief, to the point, and
helpful! It emphasizes that medical students WILL see VCD in some patients,
sooner or later. Also see LINKS webpage.
12. O'Hollaren, Mark T., MD. 'Refractory asthma' may not be asthma at all. When dyspnea comes from the larynx. J Respir Dis, Sept., 1991;12(9):845-860. Library
13. National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association (NSDA). 800-795-NSDA, fax:312-803-0138, E-mail: NSDA@dysphonia.org Like Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD), almost no-one has heard of Spasmodic Dysphonia. It is a voice disorder involving the vocal cords, sometimes causing breathing problems. Web site is www.dysphonia.org/nsda/ They (NSDA) mailed info about SD to me that included helpful ideas on how to organize a support group (for VCD )
14. Ivker, Robert S., DO. Sinus Survival (The Holistic Medical Treatment for Allergies, Colds, and Sinusitis), 4th ed., revised & updated. N.Y. Tarcher/Putnam, 2000. 380 p. book. Wonderful book that is amazingly helpful for Sinus and other related problems, like Vocal Cord Dysfunction, Asthma, Bronchitis, Allergies, Candida yeast infections, etc. Includes easy directions for doing "user friendly" NASAL IRRIGATIONS (without rubber bulb syringes!), promotes use of HOT WATER VAPORIZER (to humidify air), and describes choices of AIR CLEANING DEVICES, & other very helpful information.
15. Murray, Michael T., ND. Stomach Ailments and Digestive
Disturbances (How You Can Benefit from DIET, VITAMINS, MINERALS, HERBS,
EXERCISE and Other Natural Methods). Rocklin, CA. Prima, 1997. Pages
18,19,29,30,40-43 in his book, discuss use of DGL (De-Glycyrrhizinated
that helps some to treat gastric (acid or alkaline) reflux (GER),
&/or gastritis, &/or "ulcers". Note: DGL
cause rise of blood pressure, and does not cause water/fluid retention
(edema), as "whole licorice" can.
16. National Vaccination Information Center (NVIC). 800-909-SHOT, 703-938-0342, http://www.909shot.comThis group provides educational material to assist concerned parents and individuals to make informed vaccination decisions, in order to prevent vaccine injuries and deaths. They are non-profit, controversial, and thought provoking. (Vaccinations are a mixture of medications & chemicals, and can have adverse/bad side effects.)
17. Personal communication with MD's, Nurses, Speech Therapists, Researchers, Vocal Cord Dysfunction patients, and others, during the years 2001, 2002, & 2003. For more info, please e-mail me. See email, at bottom of this page.
18. Batmanghelidj, F., MD. Your Body's Many Cries For Water. Global Health Solutions, Inc., Falls Church, VA, 1997. 186 p. book. Discusses harmful results of both chronic dehydration and of not eating enough salt. But, don't overdo on drinking water & don't overdo on eating salt. Eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure. Controversial and thought provoking book.
19. Graedon, Joe, & Graedon, Teresa, PhD. DEADLY DRUG INTERACTIONS, The People's Pharmacy Guide. St. Martin's Griffin, New York. May, 1997. 447 p. book. Contains useful advice (check with your physician and pharmacist first!) about preventing this dangerous problem, recognizing and reporting symptoms, and realizing that more needs to be learned. One example is how "naringenin" (one of several bioflavenoids) in grapefruit juice, appears to block the action of a crucial liver enzyme, resulting in less "breakdown" of some drugs, thereby causing a toxic increase (potentially fatal) in blood levels of certain drugs (like some anti-histamines, & many other medications.) Look for latest edition of this book.
20. Bower, John. THE HEALTHY HOUSE: How to Buy One, How to
Cure a "Sick" One, How to Build One. Published by The Healthy
House Institute, Bloomington, Indiana, 4th edition, revised, 2001. 445
p. book. Excellent and important book that alerts readers to the
health hazards of "sick" homes and workplaces, including how
air pollution" can even result in CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY. Describes
how Environmental and Occupational Medicine/Health Sciences
is far ahead of the United States Federal Government, in recognizing and
dealing with "sick" buildings.
21. ADVANCES IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF VOCAL CORD DYSFUNCTION: A STATE-OF-THE-ART CONFERENCE, was July 20 & 21, 2001, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado. Information (including Ref.22 below) learned at this conference was added to this website. Also, see webpage 8, for information about the second VCD Conference, July 18 & 19, 2003, which was for medical professionals and those in allied health professions. Information from the 2003 conference is being added to this website.
22. Murray Morrison, MD, Linda Rummage, and A. J. Emami.
Irritable Larynx Syndrome[ILS]. Journal of Voice, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.447-455,
1999. Library. (Note: Larynx=Voice Box.) These observant Canadian researchers/clinicians
propose a hypothesis (theory) that includes a "mechanism whereby acquired
plastic change to central brainstem nuclei may lead to this
hyperkinetic laryngeal dysfunction" (e.g. VCD). Includes
technical, and also non-technical information. They propose a "unifying
neuro-pathological hypothesis" regarding ILS.
23. Paavo Airola, N.D., Ph.D. How to Get Well. HEALTH PLUS, Publishers, Sherwood, Oregon. 1974. 303 p. book. Dr. Airola, a Nature Doctor, believed in avoiding de-natured foods (white bread, etc.), and he exposed some hazards of drinking distilled water (soft water), like osterporosis. Has a holistic outlook ("biological medicine"). He liked "supplements", herbs, & has useful nutrient-rich food tables, for those who prefer to use foods, instead of, or in addition to supplements. A "Handbook of Natural Healing". Discusses many ailments. Has medical references. Very helpful, but, lacks info about gluten sensitivity, casein sensitivity, etc. (See webpages 5 & 10, about food sensitivities).
24. Jethro Kloss. Back to Eden. BACK TO EDEN BOOKS PUBLISHING CO., Loma Linda, California. 1939. 886 p. book. "The classic guide to herbal medicine, natural foods, and home remedies". Dedicated to using "Nature's healing resources" to help people restore health. Tells of dangers of aluminum poisoning from aluminum cookware. Includes many ailments including holistic treatments for rabies, tetanus, & smallpox--useful if one is far away from doctors or hospitals. Helpful book, but also doesn't know about food sensitivities. See webpages 5 & 10 about food sensitivities.
25. James F. Balch, MD, Phyllis A. Balch, CNC. Prescription for NUTRITIONAL HEALING. Avery Publishing Group, Garden City Park, New York. 1997 (2nd edition). [Get the latest edition]. 600 p. book. Very comprehensive holistic, and allopathic, when needed--i.e. "complementary" medical ideas about a myriad of conditions (including Candida yeast infections.) Many resources & references. Includes hazards of mercury-silver amalgam dental fillings. This helpful book does mention gluten sensitivity, but, as most doctors are, was unaware of the common-ness of gluten sensitivity, both Celiac Disease, and non-Celiac types of gluten sensitivity. See webpage 10 about food sensitivities.
26. Jamie A. Koufman, MD. THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF PARADOXICAL
VOCAL CORD MOVEMENT. Reprinted from THE VISIBLE VOICE Vol. 3, No. 3
(July 1994). Excellent article that explains several other unsuspected
causes of VCD and conditions associated with VCD, like: Spasmodic
Meige's Syndrome, also, a subset of patients with "a respiratory type of
adductor laryngeal dystonia...", side effects of some "neuroleptic" drugs,
the anesthetic Thiopental, several brainstem abnormalities (congenital
or acquired), Gastro-Esophageal
Reflux, etc. Dr. Koufman
writes, "Contrary to popular belief, relatively few cases [of VCD/paroxysmal
laryngospasm] are "functional", i.e. psychogenic." (See webpages 4 &
Dr. Koufman (Ear, Nose, &
Throat doctor) was at the Center for Voice Disorders of Wake Forest University, in Winston-Salem,
North Carolina, and is now in New York City. (Also, see
links "E" & "Q", on "links"
webpage.) To read this article, click on the following link:
27. Clayton L. Thomas, MD, MPH, editor. TABER'S CYCLOPEDIC MEDICAL DICTIONARY. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1993 (17th edition). 2,598 pages. Look at latest edition. Helps define some confusing terms. As with medical books, information changes from year to year. Inspires readers to learn more, from good anatomy books, etc. Helpful, but lacks info about VCD!
28. Tom Harris, MA, FRCS, Sara Harris, MRCSLT, John S. Rubin,
The authors conclude that "this so-called POST VIRAL VAGAL NEUROPATHY (PVVN)",
caused by a viral URI [upper respiratory infection], can manifest (show itself) as "vocal fold paresis (weakness/partial paralysis of 1 or both vocal cords), laryngopharyngeal reflux [LPR/laryngeal-pharyngeal reflux], and neuropathic pain."
Viral [virus infection],
vagal [vagus nerve, &/or branches off vagus nerve, including laryngeal nerves &/or stomach controlling nerves, etc.],
Neuropathy [nerve damage from infection, &/or from physical damage such as surgery accidentally cutting, nicking, stretching, compressing a nerve].
With PVVN, the neuropathy is due to virus infection, where the viruses moved (migrated) from one location, over to some nerve(s).
This is relevant for many VCD patients who developed VCD during or after a viral respiratory illness. The viral illness may have resulted in a new condition for some of them, such as the LPR form of GER (Gastro-Esophageal Reflux)--which can CAUSE VCD, &/or a vocal cord "paresis", which can predispose one to getting VCD!
Dr. Amin is an ENT (Ear, nose & throat doctor) formerly from Philadelphia, PA, and is now in New York City, and Dr. Koufman is an ENT previously from Winston-Salem, NC, and is now in New York City. Reprints of this article are available by contacting Dr. Koufman's office. (See link in Ref.26, above).
A patient who recovered from vocal cord paresis (spontaneously, using greatly improved diet & nutrition) told me about this article.
When laryngeal nerves are damaged, as one type of a PVVN, some other laryngologists call the laryngeal type (sub-set) of PVVN, a ''laryngeal sensory neuropathy''.
30. BUTEYKO ASTHMA EDUCATION, USA is an interesting and
helpful website, made by Susan Neves, with useful information about the
breathing methods discovered by Russian PhD, Dr. Buteyko.
http://www.buteyko.info/fap_buteyko_region.asp?grpcode=USAandCanada(Buteyko teachers in the USA & Canada), and
http://www.buteyko.info/find_a_buteyko_practitioner.asp (Buteyko teachers around the world)
http://www.breatheon.com is a website about Buteyko being taught in Boston, MA, by a speech pathologist.
http://members.westnet.com.au/pkolb/but_prac.htm (practitioner list, worldwide, from Peter Kolb's website)
http://members.westnet.com.au/pkolb/buteyko.htm (Peter Kolb's home page webpage). This website includes Peter's own reviews of some DIY (Do It Yourself) Buteyko videos, that can be bought from various sources. HERE'S THE LINK TO CLICK ON, FOR FINDING PETER'S "REVIEWS" (CRITIQUES) OF MANY DIY (DO-IT-YOURSELF) BUTEYKO VIDEOS:
" DIY/Self-Help - Professional Help "(which is actually this link:
31. Bhargava, S., Panitch, H.B., Allen, J.L., Chlorine Induced Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction. Chest 2000; 118 (4), supplement 295S-296-S. This article (which I haven't read yet) was reference 20, in Vocal Cord Dysfunction: Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion-A Thorough Review, July 18, 2001, Grand Rounds Presentation--a very interesting article, written at the Univeristy of Texas, but which has several inaccuracies in it, along with much good information about VCD.
32. Burton Goldberg and the Editors of Alternative Medicine Digest.
Alternative Medicine Guide: Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia & Environmental
Future Medicine Publishing, Tiburon, California, 1998. This
fascinating book includes many alternative (holistic) methods that have
helped some patients. Some topics included are: testing for underlying
causes; treating viruses, infections, Candida (yeast), parasites; detoxification
methods; thyroid problems; mercury tooth fillings' toxicity and other heavy
metal toxicities; digestion problems & need for digestive enzymes;
allergies; nutrition needs; psychological & emotional factors; use
of acupuncture; sick building syndrome & building related illness;
use of herbs, etc.
33. PANDAS (Paediatric Autoimmune
Associated with Streptococcal bacterial infection), or a similar condition caused by viruses, mycobacteria, etc., can sometimes result in getting VCD, in the following ways:
Eating ice compulsively (pagophagia) can
cause gastric reflux leading to VCD. One specific OCD/Obsessive
Compulsive Disorder (called pagophagia) may in some cases be caused by PANDAS, or in some other cases, the pagophagia can just be caused by an iron deficiency. See webpage 5 for links about pagophagia, etc. See http://cantbreathesuspectvcd.com/page5.html
Bulimia (self induced vomiting due to an OCD) may in some cases be caused by PANDAS, and the vomiting can act like gastric reflux, causing VCD attacks. See webpage 5 for links about bulimia and about PANDAS.
"Tics" can sometimes be a VCD "mimic". Tics can sometimes be caused by PANDAS. See webpage 3, for links about PANDAS and tics. See http://cantbreathesuspectvcd.com/page3.html
Also see the question near the bottom of webpage 5, asking
whether tic disorders (in some cases caused by PANDAS) can ever lead to
You are now at the bottom of web-page 9. Please read web-page 10, next.
Please use caution, and consult with your physician before trying
any of the therapies suggested in any of the above references.